Practical I Hotels in Nürnberg
In 1050, "Nourenberc" was first official mentioned in documents. At
this time, this locality was primarily a castle burgafenveste built
short time before by Kaiser Heinrich III. and used to secure and expand
the surrounding imperial estates.
The transfer of the market-rights from the older episcopal Fürth,
neighbouring town and belonging to the diocese Bamberg as well as the
existence of two imperial "Wirtschaftshöfe" at the castle, indicates the
favour of the Kaiser.
After 1070, the grave of the miracle-working Sebaldus leads a stream of
visitors to Nuremberg.
1105, during the fight for the throne between Heinrich IV and his son,
Nürnberg was conquered and destroyed.
1130, during the battle against the Staufer, the duke of Bavaria,
Heinrich der Stolze, occupied the city but afterwards he had to hand
it over to the new-elected Kaiser Konrad III.
The Staufer quickly extended Nürnberg. On the Burgfelsen, the old
Burggrafenveste was extended by a new castle, the so called kaiserburg
while on the other side of the river Pegnitz, the now called Lorenzer
Stadt was built.
Several stays of the Kaiser and "Fürstentage" marked the growing
importance of Nürnberg.
Kaiser Friedrich II. gave Nürnberg important rights, especially in
economical matters, in form of the "Freiheitsbrief".
After the descent of the Staufer, a period of imperial weakness began.
The leading families of the city were able to establish self-regulation
of the community. Even so, the sovereignty over the Kaiserburg remained
in the hands of the
Kaiser.But his power in Nürnberg was weakened, since the Hohenzollern became
counts of the Burggrafenveste in 1192. By using their court- and
sovereign-rights, they where able to extend their sphere of influence
In the year 1356, one of the milestones in german history was
proclaimed: The golden bule.
As in the 13th century, several "Reichs-" and "Fürstentage" were held in
By 1427, the Hohenzollern moved their main residence from Nürnberg to
the "Mark Brandenburg" and sold the Burggrafenveste to the city of
Between 1495 and 1525, a period of prosperity, political power and the
atmosphere of intellectual and artistically advance made Nürnberg one
of Europe's leading metropolises.
The Reformation in 1525 marked an important point in Nuremberg's
history. A dispute between the catholic Kaiserhaus and the now reformed
Just before the outbreak of the 30-year-war, the population of Nürnberg
reached its peak (50.000).
In 1622 the old academy of Altdorf became University.
1632 the war came to Nürnberg. Two military commanders - Wallenstein
and Gustav Adolf - fought one of the most bloodiest battles of the war
The war left Nürnberg highly in debt and with decimated population.
The pressure of high taxes and the many customs barriers of the
surrounding territories paralysed the economic development.
Meanwhile, Prussia and Bavaria occupied rural areas of the now
defenceless city. Since 1796 French troops occupied the city several
1806, the kingdom of Bavaria annexed Nürnberg. One of the first actions
of the new regents was, to squander most of the cities works of art, to
sell churches and close the University. The city was deprived of all
its political powers and became a second-choice city.
The first German railroad was build between Nürnberg and Fürth in 1835.
Pioneers as Cramer Klett, Schukert, and Faber made Nürnberg to one of
Bavaria’s industrial centres.
1910, the city's population reached 330.000.
1933, the darkest chapter in the history of Germany began. Nürnberg
became city of the so-called "Reichsparteitage". The intention of the
Nazi-regime under Adolf Hitler was, to revive the days of the tribute to
the Kaiser in a "modern" form.
38 air raids on Nürnberg in the following World War 2 destroyed 90% of
the historical buildings and 40% of the whole city.
From November 20, 1945, until October 1,
International Military Tribunal (IMT) convened in the
principal courtroom for criminal cases (room No. 600) in the
Palace of Justice. At the conferences in Moscow (1943), Teheran (1943),
Jalta (1945) and Potsdam (1945), the Big Three powers (USA, USSR and
Great Britain) had agreed to try and to punish those responsible for
war-crimes. Designated by President Harry S. Truman as U.S.
representative and chief counsel at the IMT Supreme Court Justice Robert
H. Jackson planned and organized the trial procedure and served as Chief
Prosecutor for the USA. He recommended
Nürnberg as site for the trials
for several reasons. The Palace of Justice was spacious - it had 22,000
m2 of space with about 530 offices and about 80 courtrooms; war damage
to it was minimal; and a large, undestroyed prison was part of the
Although Nürnberg was one of the worst destroyed cities in Germany, the
citizens had the will to rebuild the city as fast as possible. In the
1950's, most of the destruction was cleared away.